In their aggression against different cultures they are able to arouse prejudices on the psychological level, which can be exploited politically. Docucenter, Bacău. Wenn man also wie ein Architekt denkt, kann man tausend Spiele gewinnen, ohne je einen Ball anzufassen. Il existe, sans nul doute, une fonction imaginaire de la radio, chaque auditeur fabriquant une image conforme à l idée qu il se fait du référent.
Beide Ausdrücke, sowohl der ausgangs als auch der zielsprachliche, erfüllen die gleiche Funktion in ihrem jeweiligen Sprachsystem. Derart wird Paula, im Ausgangstext als dumme Kuh 71 bezeichnet, in Les amantes zur oie stupide Mit einer sinngemäßen Entsprechung aus der Zielsprache zu operieren, ist nur in den wenigsten Fällen wirklich zufriedenstellend.
Im folgenden Textbeispiel wird mit dem Gattungsbegriff gearbeitet, was zur Folge hat, dass die konnotative Dimension der Peter Alexander Show leichte, launige Samstagsabendunterhaltung 17 18 Peter Alexander als österreichischer Entertainer verloren geht.
Der kulturspezifische Ausdruck wird durch die Übersetzung gänzlich neutralisiert.
Als letzte Übersetzungsstrategie sind kommentierende Verfahren anzumerken. Diese sind weit gefasst und reichen von der sinnaufschlüsselnden Paraphrase bis hin zur editorischen Maßnahmen in Gestalt von Glossaren und Fußnoten.
Jelinek, Les amantes Dies bedeutet gleichermaßen die Loslösung von der Dichotomie wort oder sinngetreue Übersetzung. Über semiotische Aspekte hinaus ist jedoch auch der Transfer textimmanenter kultureller Elemente für den Übersetzungsprozess bzw. Dahingehend ist auch die Doppelbedeutung des Titels Transfer des Typischen zu verstehen, einerseits bezieht dieser sich auf das Typische in Jelineks Schreiben, andererseits auf das Typische in Bezug auf die österreichische Ausgangs- Kultur, worauf in Kapitel 4 in den jeweiligen Unterkapiteln eingegangen worden ist.
Es kann demnach festgestellt werden, dass Übersetzungsprobleme aus einer Sprach und Kulturkontaktsituation resultieren bzw. Knauer Die Liebhaberinnen.
Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, Jelinek, Elfriede. Les amantes. Yasmin Hoffmann u. Maryvonne Litaize. Nîmes: J. Chambon, Sekundärliteratur: Dizdar, Dilek. Handbuch Translation. Mary Snell-Hornby et al. Tübingen: Stauffenburg-Verl. Elfriede Jelinek. Metzler Autorinnen Lexikon. Ute Hechtfischer et al.
Weimar: Metzler, Hoffmann, Yasmin. Elfriede Jelinek: die internationale Rezeption. Daniela Bartens. Graz, Wien: Droschl, Hoffmann, Yasmin.
Sprach und Kulturkritik im Erzählwerk. Opladen, Wiesbaden: Westdt. Die Nestbeschmutzerin. Grundkurs Übersetzungswissenschaft Französisch. Stuttgart: Klett, Koch, Martina. MA thesis.
University of Vienna, Kupsch-Losereit, Sigrid. Übersetzen als transkultureller Verstehens und Kommunikationsvorgang: andere Kulturen, andere Äußerungen. Sprachtransfer Kulturtransfer. Text, Kontext und Translation. Nikolai Salnikow. Romane für die Unterschicht. Groschenhefte und ihre Leser. Stuttgart: Metzler, Schäffner, Christina. Dekonstruktion des Mythos in ausgewählten Prosawerken von Elfriede Jelinek.
Sachwörterbuch der Literatur. The social practice of language behavior is tightly bound to society, power, values, ideologies, opinions, etc.
Annals of SPIRU HARET University
The analysis of the political discourse will help us make the mechanisms of manipulation, discrimination, demagogy and propaganda explicit and transparent. Keywords: political discourse, demagogy, language, behavior The question of specific interest for critical linguists is: What are the social and political practices involved in or triggered by the sentence? Today we speak of discourse or of text written and oral ; we do not accept the sentence as the largest unit in vogue.
We are concerned in our paper with the social practice of language behavior, with the dialectics between society, power, values, ideologies, opinions expressed and constituted in and about language. Generally speaking, we want to uncover and de-mystify certain social processes, to make mechanisms of manipulation, membrii apk, demagogy, and propaganda explicit and transparent.
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As a second step, as many indicators, data and knowledge as possible concerning the whole context of these processes have to be examined, to enable us to interpret and understand how and why reality is structured in a certain way. Language changes always manifest social changes but language changes or changes in the language behavior can also trigger social changes. As far as the texts themselves are concerned, it may be dating dating lustige spruche that the linguistic means of which they consist of, converge to form a total-meaning, even if the latter may in fact remain contradictory.
The way in which meaning is formed, and the way in which it is communicated, is based upon processes that transgress the confines of the individual text.
The latter realizes, against a general background, a number of actual operations of meaning to be reconstructed by the reader. The linguistic forms, as bearers of meaning, are socio-historically determined; therefore, each text functions as a reconstruction or variation of the socio-historical determinants. The political speeches and manifestos, different cultural trends may be texts used in the service of conscious propaganda e. The manifestos usually reach their target recipients through newspapers and magazines or television.
The propagandist speeches as well as the programmatic manifestos 21 22 show substantially the same text-typological and text-constitutive features. In both cases the same discursive techniques are applied using emotionally charged language, with the aim of inducing the listener to arrive at affective value judgments or to approve of those presented to him. This aim of persuasion is realized by applying strategies typical of propaganda: argumentation. In their aggression against different cultures they are able to arouse prejudices on the psychological level, which can be exploited politically.
They apply the strategy of adopting the main concepts and values of their opponents and changing them completely by means of skilful linguistic delivery, making them appear absurd and casting doubt on the credibility and the social importance of their contents. In order to undermine the political goals of the opponent, qualities attributed to him were negated and presented as contrast to positive qualities found in their own movement.
Our textual analysis has shown which discursive dating dating lustige spruche are applied in conceiving a convincing message in order to incite people to act. Hence, for example, the creation of images of an enemy against whom One could join and show solidarity; hence, the development of myths, by which leaders attempt to give a rational legitimization to irrational actions and the call for aggression; hence, also the stereotypical use of central concepts which are to substantiate the claim for the myth to be true and consistent; hence, the use of slogans and catchwords which appeal to emotions and an argumentation, whose persuasive character results mainly from the contrasting of opinions; hence, a type of rhetoric that employed the imagery of metaphor in order to express its message clearly and urgently, and finally a language, which, by using concepts of the natural sciences and their laws, presume to possess also their rationality.
All these are strategies, characteristic of the use of language in the process of conveying ideology.
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The typical feature of this discourse, which distinguishes it from many other types of political discourse, and which, however, places it unmistakably within a specific socio-historical setting, is the orientation of its language. Persuasive behavior is of its very nature always communicative behavior. In order to employ the stylistic differences between various linguistic structures for rhetorical purposes is a most common and legitimate everyday implementation of linguistic means of expression.
Rhetorical acts, i. Words can, in fact, be used as instruments of power and deception, but it is never the words themselves that should be dubbed evil and poisonous, as has become the fashion since the days of Mauthner. The responsibility for any damage that might have been done by using certain means of expression still lies with the users, those who, not being able to alter reality, try through interpretative strategies to change its reception and recognition by their interlocutors Bork, 9.
It is not reality that is altered by its description, rather is it the interlocutor's outlook on 22 23 reality and his interpretation that can be controlled by devices of persuasive communication.
Linguistic devices of persuasive turn are arranged along two parameters: on the Structural level they range from explicit, predominantly marked, even systematic elements, down to implicit, unmarked workday routines language of the peer-group, the dating dating lustige spruche of the family, regional variants, etc. As far as the relationship between the speaker persuader and his interlocutor is concerned, persuasive devices can either employ means that serve to arose surprise, even cause estrangement, or one may resort to quite another trick: chumming up to somebody by mimickry, i.
Thus, by impressing or surprising somebody, the persuader tries to make his victim give up his own viewpoint and embrace that of the rhetorician, whereas in the case of flattery and acting out of chumminess the dating mgtow is convinced that the persuader has given up his own point of view in favor of that of the persuaded.
What is even more effective is when the victim gets the impression that both partners have had the same outlook on reality from the very beginning, in which case the persuader is regarded and accepted as one of the victim's near and dear.
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Here the central aim of the persuader, i. Intelligibility is prerequisite of persuasion. This might, at first sight, seem to be a very trivial statement: of course one has to understand what somebody says in order to be influenced by what he has meant.
We have in mind the fact that in order for a language to be effective, e. This would mean that not only referential-denominative features, conditioned by presuppositions, would have to be parallel in both parties, but also degrees of semantic intensity and expressiveness, and above all the connotative meaning potential, attitudinal aspects, fears and expectations.
In fact, the communicative biographies of the partners ought to be practically the same in order to guarantee mutual understanding and trustworthiness, since parallel semiotic backgrounds are necessary to effect the persuader's main task, i.
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This is why in Sornig's view 98 understanding in general and persuasive communication in particular has to do with identification, i. This is why persuasion works best among people who speak the same language. People who share similar communicative biographies can achieve understanding and agreement with a minimum of verbal activity.
The seductive mechanism that employs similarity of communicative behavior may well be seen in contrast to coercive strategies which dating dating lustige spruche a similar purpose, viz. In this case, however, mutual understanding is not his aim; the victims know that they are being conditioned and controlled against their 23 24 will instead of acting upon their own decision. At the top of the list of the more or less outspoken rhetorical devices there are explicit announcements to introduce argumentative steps, such as: I'll explain this to you, shall I?
The presumpliousness of assertive communication reaches its climax when somebody is obliged to repeat a statement or a command after the person who initiated it. In this connection one cannot avoid mentioning the persuasive force that can be derived from repeating someone else's statement, especially in the original wording.
Quotational language not only carries conviction, or at least feigns celebrity by exploiting the prestige of the person by whom a quotation was originated, it also contains the temptation to misuse and abuse what somebody of importance has said and probably meant. Another social aspect of political discourse is the viteză de viteză roz what makes an utterance credible or a person trustworthy not taking into account characteristics of non-verbal behavior?
The answer Werner Holly proposes is based on Griece's explication of 'meaning' and some further reflections on the question of how n-meaning of a verbal action can be conveyed, understood, or interpreted. He is arguing that the lack of trustworthiness that even politicians themselves deplore is not due to the fact that their utterances seem to be false or indirect.
Mendacity is apparent only in a few of the cases considered as examples of untrustworthiness. The main reason seems to be that, in political language, the way of conveying meaning is obscured, and above all, the speaker's intentions are not overt. Griece's model of communication excludes symbolic action, which lacks in overtness. There are good reasons for such a restrictive definition of communication, despite the fact that covertness is no rarity.
Înțelesul "fröhlich" în dicționarul Germană
Let us see what a person may resort to with the aim of conveying the complex meaning of an utterance. First of all, he may use what has been called the usual or lexical meaning of expressions.
This is the very simple case: one means something 'it is hot' and conveys it explicitly by saying It is hot. Secondly, our speaker may proceed in a more sophisticated way and convey meaning by resorting to what has been described as semantic presuppositions and implications.
Linguistic knowledge is still used, but a much wider range of possibilities has been opened, and things become more complicated; we already have to read between the lines.
Sinonimele și antonimele fröhlich în dicționarul de sinonime Germană
Finally, there is the possibility of expressing meaning by using pragmatic presuppositions and implications, only to be understood by consulting the special situation of the utterance. The idea that a room is very hot may be expressed ironically by saying: It is awfully cold.
The addressee has to choose the relevant meaning components from a range of possibilities, according to dating dating lustige spruche particular circumstances of interaction. To deal with this task the addressee may question what the speaker might have intended, but this is only part of the interpretative process. His general aim is to arrive at an interpretation, which makes sense, i. A look at the conditions of political language used in public shows that these aren't comparable to everyday situations.
Firstly, face-to-face situations are rare; almost every utterance, which is heard by the public, is a mediated one. What seem to be face-to-face situations in media, interviews or TV-discussions, for instance, often turn out to be mere staging of spontaneous interactions.
Critical intuition or detailed analysis, reveal their ritual character as being an excellent opportunity for refined propaganda. And even if a citizen happens to encourage a politician, at an election rally, during a campaign or his office hours, he still has to deal with the considerable asymmetry present between the professional communicator and the layman a factor that influences radically the face-to-face situation, and particularly the question of responsibility.
Even in the European institutions, political groups need their own language and portray themselves via this language Chirimbu In real life, they define their territory by means of their language; they signal their ideology through certain slogans and stereotypes; their ideological structure is joined together in a certain way and so is their argumentation.
Dependent on rules and programs respectively, this use of language may serve to produce provocation, or to incite reflection, or to effect the emergence of a ghetto.
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Thus, there are subcultures whose intention it is to datând un om mincinos understood and to recruit new members; others form closed dating dating lustige spruche and so remain misunderstood. The connection between language and experience may be assumed to be a proven fact; since the investigation of Whorf we are dating dating lustige spruche of the reflection of reality by means of language and vice versa.
Jargon is a special language which is based grammatically on the common language, but which contains special features in the lexical, semantic and syntactic areas.
The speaker employs jargon in order to acquire prestige, but without this prestige being justified by the imparted content to the form. We do not want to restrict the definition in this way. Recent studies on jargon, political language and special languages have shown that we need a socio linguistic approach here as well. Jargon can be defined as group languages with specific functions, i. Thus, the identical words may execute a prestige function, while also representing a precise way of talking about specific ideological contents.
In our case, we could say that language may represent contrasting linguistic functions. Jargon may focus primarily on the group -the prestige function or it may merely be a very clever and effective tool for expressing political opinions. Most elite types of discourse, such as political and legal discourse or scholarly reports, are directly accessible only to a small segment of in group. Mass 25 26 circulation and sharing among in group of ethnic prejudices and ideologies presuppose mass communication, that is expression or re production in the mass media.
Therefore, we assume that the media play a very specific role in the distribution and acceptance of ethnic ideologies. The media do not passively describe or record news events in the world, but actively re construct, mostly on the basis of many types of source discourses.
Corporate interests, news values, institutional routines, professional ideologies and news schemata formats play an important role in this transformation.
These factors favor preferential access of powerful persons, institutions and nations to the media, more stories about these power elites, special focus on negative, conflictual or dramatic events, and generally a White, Western, male, and middle class perspective on news events. Most readers tend to adopt this definition of news events and news discourse Grabber, The properties of news processing tend to lead to a reproduction and legitimation of the ideology of the political, socio-economic and cultural elites.
On the other hand, the specific institutional and professional functions and goals of the media and the journalists also allow and require a semiautonomous role in the re production of news events and the manufacture of social consensus. It is also this 'symbolic power' of the media that helps explain its role in the reproduction of racism.
Docucenter, Bacău. Grice, H. Morgan edsSyntax and Semantics 3: Acts. Zeitschrift fur Germanistiche Linguistik Schjerve, R. Thanks to the discourse linguistics, the media discourse has become one of its topics, since media is perceived as an amazing mechanism to create a discourse. The objective of this article is to outline the central issues in the radio discourse, a type of media discourse, triggered by its occurrence conditions.
These issues can gather around the following questions Charaudeau, : Who is there to say or do what? Who is there for how to say or do?
Who is talking to whom? Talking about what?
In which space and time frames? Grâce à la linguistique du discours, le discours médiatique est devenu un de ses objets d étude, les médias étant considérés comme «une fantastique machine» à produire des discours. Celles-ci pourraient s organiser autour des questions suivantes Charaudeau, : 28 On est là pour quoi dire ou faire? On est là pour comment dire et faire?
Qui parle à qui? A propos de quoi?
Dans quel cadre physique d espace et de temps? Le discours radiophonique diffère selon les époques, selon les genres, selon les stations émettrices ou les chaînes de radio.
Xenophon on the Formative Role of Hunting. Le cas des «» à Aulnay-sous-Bois 7 I.
À lire U. Ecola radio est sous-tendue par la chaîne suivante: «La source de l information étant l émetteur du message qui, ayant identifié un ensemble donné de faits à communiquer, les fait parvenir au transmetteur le microphone qui les change en signaux physiques; ceux-ci voyagent sur un canal ondes hertziennessont reçus par un récepteur qui les transformes en message sons articulés qui sera reçu par le destinataire».
Le propre de la radio est d utiliser le sonore, mais en évoquant le visible. L étude du discours radiophonique ne saurait se contenter d analyser le produit fini celui qui passe à travers les ondes hertziennes mais il est nécessaire d expliquer et analyser «l amont» du texte radiophonique et également son «aval», discours et texte radiophonique se fondant en un ensemble complexe.
Selon A. Tudesqles deux voies qui expliqueraient l «amont» et l «aval» du texte ou message radiophonique portent sur: a le circuit de fabrication, mécanisme qui détermine le statut des partenaires impliqués dans ce type de communication et les contrats ou types de relations qui les rattachent entre eux; b le système de représentation, mécanisme qui conduira à l élaboration du sens et de la signification dans le discours radiophonique à travers le fonctionnement de la pratique professionnelle.
C est un flux continu qui se situe entre «un amont et un aval» 29 «L aval» du produit fini porte sur les effets effectivement produits sur les récepteurs, pour les confronter ensuite aux effets possibles dégagés lors de l analyse interne» A.
Tudesq, L Homo Vox est un discours complexe. Une idéologie institutionnalisée l engendre, une pratique socioculturelle le structure, une technique tranches horaires, modulage du presque direct, ensemble de procédés de simulation le sous-tend, un groupe de professionnels réalisent par des textes précis le processus extrêmement complexe de communication radiophonique, un ensemble de sujets écoutants ou auditeurs le consomme pour accéder a ce qu on a nomme le gagne-onde.
L Homo Vox parce que les textes produits existent, éphémères, par la voix de quelqu un qui a réussi à établir, en quelque sorte, un équilibre harmonieux entre l Institution, l Individu et les Indices d écoute» J. Clopeau dating dating lustige spruche M. Renouard, Tudesql émission et la réception des messages radiophoniques sont gouvernées par: 29 30 Les contraintes permanentes La précision du minutage qui impose des durées d interventions très précises; le déroulement dans le temps impose à l auditeur l ordre de présentation des messages; L écoute et la lassitude dating dating lustige spruche l attention.
L écoute de la radio n est pas contraignante pour l auditeur qui peut se livrer à une autre activité; en contrapartie, l attention faiblit, en moyenne au bout de dix minutes, et l auditeur ne se rappelle plus qu une part plus ou moins faible de ce qu il a entendu; c est une sorte de balayage du message ou «contraction du texte» qu il mémorisera; Elocution et audibilité. Ich hab gelernt, wenn man auf Rollschuhen kotzt, fährt man in den Sprühnebel rein.
Turns out, when you projectile vomit on skates, you roll right into the spray.
Doch ich bereue das nicht, denn es hat zu etwas geführt, dass ich für nichts auf dieser Welt eintauschen würde. Nämlich, dass wir Freunde sind. Also als dein Freund und als führender Experte auf dem Gebiet sich zum Trottel zu machen, sag ich dir nur eins und das aus tiefstem Herzen.
Jetzt steig schon verdammt nochmal aus! Eight years ago I made an ass of myself chasing after you and I made an ass of myself chasing after you a bunch of times since then.
And I have no regrets because it led me to something I wouldn't trade for the world, it led to you being my friend.
So as your friend and a leading expert in the field of making an ass of yourself. I say to you, from the heart, get the hell out of this car!
Na gut, das meiste davon an dem Tag, als ich in den Fahrstuhlschacht fiel. I poured my blood, sweat and tears into that building. Though, to be fair, a lot of that happened the day I accidentally fell down the elevator shaft. Danach taten sie das, was alle reifen erwachsenen tun würden: Sie taten so, als wäre nichts geschehen. Kids, Robin and Barney had recently shared an awkward moment.
After that, they did what any two mature adults would do: They pretended it never happened. Das bedeutet, dass du mit ihr ganz lange zusammen sein kannst. Marshall, you being 18 isn't a bad thing. It just means you get to spend even more of your life with her. Wenn man also wie ein Architekt denkt, kann man dating dating lustige spruche Spiele gewinnen, ohne je einen Ball anzufassen. If you think like an architect, you could win a thousand games without ever touching a ball.
Also, wie machen wirs?