Fagus in the Late Holocene This was during precisely the millennia of the early and middle Subboreal, when the early Indo-Europeans were migrating westward and southward. Botanical Ordering Introduction This book, and particularly this chapter, is partly a criticism of the lack of systematization in protosemantics, particularly the treatment of semantic units as unordered sets; there is even less theoretical justification for ordering protomorphemes on the basis of the protosound with which they begin than there is for a purely alphabetical ordering of the phonological units in a protolanguage; in neither case is a convenient finding scheme any substitute for a statement of systematic interdependencies. Arboreal Succession in Eastern Europe Arboreal Succession in Eastern Europe Let us now briefly review the order of geologically defined arboreal succession in central and, more particularly, eastern Europe and southern Russia-the putative PIE homeland. Second, the inferred tree names might be ordered in terms of their signification or underlying meaning; a folk taxonomy, for example, involving the distinctive features by which native speakers differentiate or claim to differentiate the phenomena in question.
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Goodenough, Harold Conklin, and Floyd Lounsbury for their ideas on the semantics of paradigms and taxonomies; and to the archaeological anthropologist, Lewis Binford, for his often inspired thoughts on how to relate ecological factors to inferences about prehistory.
I am indebted to Robbins Burling for a trenchant critique of an earlier version of chapter 1. Margaret Hardin Friedrich read the entire manuscript twice and contributed invaluably to improving the structure and explicitness of the argument.
I t should go without saying that none of these botanists. Methods and Concepts Introduction This short study deals with one small portion of the languageand-culture system of the speakers of the PIE dialects, who are assumed to have been scattered in a broad band over the steppe, forests, and foothills between the western Caspian area and the Carpathians and possibly the north German plainduring roughly the fourth millennium and the first centuries of the third millennium B.
The taxonomic hypothesis to be presented and argued consists of three parts.
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First, that the PIE recognized and named at least eighteen units or categories of trees. Second, that the PIE language, or large groups of PIE dialects, contained at least thirty names of trees; these are attested in varying ways and degrees in languages of the descendent stocks, but particularly in Italic, Germanic, Baltic, and Slavic, and to a lesser degree in Celtic and Greek. The probabilities of at least fortyone species-level entities for the PIE will be demonstrated in the pages following.
The nature and interdependencies of these systems can only be discovered and interpreted by conjoining three approaches, or analytical systems.
The first approach is linguistic-above all, phonological. Although there do remain serious contradictions of evidence and conflicts of judgment, the phonology of IE and of PIE itself is today based on an exhaustive and theoretically sophisticated study of rich factual material.
This phonology can provide the protosemanticist with the essential information on the existence of protomorphs, on their phonological shape, and on their symbolic notation, and with a t least some of the criteria for making decisions about homonymy, synonymy, and so forth; the interpretation of a protosemantics depends significantly on protophonology.
To a lesser extent, the semantic interpretation depends on morphology-on the theories of nominal root structure and on the patterns of declension and derivation. Syntax is of vytas survivor dating relevance because of the absence of prototexts, and even-with a few exceptions-of protosyntagmas containing tree names.
The phonological and morphological parameters of inference constitute the linguistic system. Second, just as the shape of a morpheme is an abstraction from the tabulated phonological correspondences, so the denotation of a protoform is abstracted from the tabulated correspondences in meaning.
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But these semantic abstractions need to be interpreted by a combination of the traditional science of etymology, concerned with the unique histories of word and word families, and, on the other hand, the newer sciences of linguistic ethnography and structural semantics, which are concerned with relations of contrast and covariation between sets of morphemes and words, and with the semantic features which underlie such sets.
These philological and ethnographic parameters of inference constitute the semantic system. Following botanical practice, the Latin names of the vytas survivor dating are capitalized, and abbreviated to the first letter when followed by a species name, which is always in minuscule.
The Conjunctive Approach Third and last, the reconstructed lexicon may relate to data and systems that are neither linguistic nor semantic. Such data may range from archaeological site reports e. The interpretive systems may range from the general concept of a Neolithic technology e.
The results of linguistic or semantic reconstruction may be tied outward to the up-to-date information from the humanistic sciences, as in the metrical analyses by Meillet, Jakobson, and Dating dar nici o mașină, or to the social sciences, as in the mythological analyses by Dum6zil and Littleton, or to the natural sciences, as in this book.
This process of tying outward I would call disambiguation through contextualization. The entire field of nonlinguistic and nonsemantic information I would call the external system. The conjunctive approach develops from the postulate that the science of linguistics is concerned with systems of sound and meaning in natural language and with the interconnections between these two levels of reality; linguistic here lexical meaning is assumed to be significantly related to natural habitat and human culture.
The conjunctive approach rests less heavily on tight or stringent proofs using only one line of evidence, such as phonology, and seeks, rather, to exploit all relevant evidence in order to establish a hierarchy of probability.
By taking account of diverse facts and analytical models, the conjunctive approach may reduce the indeterminacy or "nonuniqueness" of narrowly based solutions-particularly of those based on purely formal operations and purely internal textual analysis. The conjunctive approach may eventually lead us to rewrite many dictionary entries and-what is more interesting-to develop an adequate theory of PIE culture; that is, of the system vytas survivor dating perceptual and conceptual values shared and transmitted by the members of this primitive Neolithic society.
Methods and Concepts Three Semantic Problems Over- and Underdigerentiation As with fieldwork in descriptive semantics, two of the major problems in inferring a protosemantics are over- and underdifferentiation in the relation between sets of things and sets of symbols.
In overdifferentiation, two or more symbolic forms are found to correspond to what a t first appears to be but one eligible or available referent. In underdifferentiation, the number of such minimal meaningful forms or "morphs" is inferior to the number of referents which, for one reason or another, one would wish to postulate.
My meaning may be clarified by several brief examples, the full details of which are treated in the etymological studies that make up the bulk of the book. A considerable number of PIE morphemes or arboreal units have two or more alternate names or forms, vytas survivor dating is obvious from the ratio of eighteen units to thirty names; specifically, the oak and the willow have three each, and five trees have two each: the yew, the apple, the maple, the elm, and the nut tree -although the latter is probably on a different level of taxonomic contrast and analogous to the notion of "fruit tree.
In other instances, such as that of the yew unit, the reflexes of the two terms contrast in some stocks Slavic, Greek, and perhaps Italicalthough with different denotata. In yet other instances, such as the maple, two terms are a t hand for "one tree. The correspondences diverge from conventional phonological and root theory, but they cannot be dogmatically rejected.
Three Semantic Problems There are instances where one of the two terms has reflexes that are limited to two or three continguous stocks. Does this indicate that a particular species of maple was limited to western Europe during the Subboreal roughly to B.
To what extent do the overlapping forms within Germanic reflect a synchronic taxonomic contrast between distinct species or two groups of species of maples? And into P I E itself? Somewhat less troublesome and frequent are the problems of semantic underdifferentiation, but examples are not hard to find. In at least parts of the P I Vytas survivor dating homeland of the fourth millennium, both the juniper and cedar were probably hardy.
But these denotata show up in only one set of cognates, and oneof the poorest i. This imperfect set of forms contrast with other sets of forms, just as, in a much looser sense, the junipers and cedars are physically more similar to each other than either is to any other class of trees; in other words, there is enough formal and semantic correspondence and contrast to postulate a hypothetical morphemic nucleus.
Proto Indo European Trees
May we provisionally assign the denotation of juniper-cedar to Iate P I E el-w-n-? Sometimes there is no term a t all for a referent that may well have existed in the system. Are we to regard this as a "zero lexeme" Goodenoughp. It is well established that the larch was present in much of the P I E homeland, yet no protoform exists.
The linden Tilia was ubiquitous throughout eastern Europe during the entire Atlantic roughly to B. Does this not pinpoint the need for new hypotheses, and for a detailed reexamination by stock Methods and Concepts specialists e.
I n what follows, "denotation" is used for the class of individuals that is necessarily referred to by a name; those referents are necessarily botanical constructs, but one may reasonably assume that these latter correspond in some important sense to conceptualtaxonomic units in PIE culture.
Clearly, my usage of denotation and connotation differs from that of either a medieval philosopher or a modern logician, both of whom have quite different motivations, and also from that of the ethnographer who seeks to elicit supposedly "objective" referents from live speakers.
Let us now consider some problems in inferring protodenotation.
Denotative relations may be paradigmatic. For example, the PIE terms for blood relatives were distinguished by generation, sex of relative, and patrigroup membership. I would assume that the tree names constitute a paradigmatic set discrete from other sets such as kinship terms, and composed of members distinguished from each other by unique combinations of dimensions such as leaf-shape, the yielding of fruit, and overall shape.
The denotation of proto-terms is characterized by various kinds of semantic relations: the color terms are on a gradient; the names for parts of a chariot or of a tree are related anatomically; various kinds of congruity may exist between symbol sets in the mythical pantheon and the social structure.
Miscellanica Arborea I. Radical Come ts 2. Betula in the Middle Holocene 2. Betula in the Late Holocene 3.
Denotation is often ordered in folk-taxonomies; that is, hierarchies of inclusion and exclusion Conklin Since the terms were complementary we may assume, for the sake of this discussion, that they referred to the same reality for Balts and Teutons in the north, and Greeks and Armenians on the Black Sea. Some eastern dialects probably distinguished another subspecies, the Caspian salmon trout; these latter taxa cannot be recaptured, but ichthyological evidence makes the presence of the species certain and the terminological distinctions likely.
Similar taxonomic relations occur within the arboreal nomenclature, although suprageneric taxa are hard to recapture.
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Connotation is often defined as a residual class, or metaphorically as a sort of verbal penumbra. I n a sense that admittedly is only somewhat less inexact, I would take connotation to refer to the relatively less essential meanings of a nameto the associated meanings which only function in comparatively marked contexts.
Such associations may arise through similarity or contiguity with the referents of other names or through the functions of the referents in various social contexts.
Such associations are often patterned in complex and relatively structured sets. Connotation may be usefully distinguished from denotation, although drawing a sharp line necessarily obscures significant transitional phenomena. The varieties and degrees of validity in protoconnotation are many. At one extreme, the reflexes in only one or two stocks suggest connotations that, because of other considerations, may be attributed to the parent speech community; Italic etymologies indicate that the term for "hornbeam" may be connected with a root for "cut, carve" qerep- gerebh-and this is congruous with a widespread semantic association in modern languages "iron wood," "skewer wood," etc.
I n the third place, sets of names may denote trees that serve some common function, such as providing nuts beech, oak, hazel, walnut ; this function is a type of connotation.
Protoconnotation presents great problems of attestation. In general, I would posit a connotation for any late dialectal group such as "Balto-Slavic" or "Western" if i t is reflected in two or more stocks, and vytas survivor dating progressively earlier stages and larger dialect areas as there is an increase in the number of stocks, in their degree of noncontiguity, in the antiquity of the textual materials, and in correspondence to phonological laws.
Also relevant, although less decisive, is the acceptability of the connotation in terms of the natural and social sciences, and its "naturalness" in terms of "common sense. I assume that paradigms, taxonomies, and other sets of terms often share sets of connotations that "hold them together," and that significantly influence the speaker's usage and the course of semantic change.
Prehistoric Culture and the Protomorpheme To a Proto-Indo-European hewing down a tree with a stone ax, the physical differences between an elm and a linden, or even an English and a live oak, would be obvious-often painfully so. He would tend to symbolize these differences in words, probably roots. This simple premise about trees as semantic primitives underlies much of the reasoning in the analyses below.
What further assumptions need to be clarified? A primary assumption is that the P I E speakers shared a culture, in the sense of a unique and coherent set of percepts and concepts, of values, attitudes, and symbols pertaining to their economy, social life, religion, and the natural environment.
I assume that all cultural systems have the structure of interlocking sets of symbolic features and forms. Three Semantic Problems A second assumption is that the cultural system partly includes a second symbolic system, that of language; I say "partIy" because the degree of inclusion depends on the type of language subsystem. For example, the cult symbolism of Druidic oak worship is almost completely discrete from the question of laryngeal sounds or ergative clause types in PIE. I n fact the subsystems of sound the phonologyand of the linear ordering of referential units "morphosyntax" in a narrow senseare relatively independent of the cultural symbolic system.
The semantic subsystem of language is the system of meanings that can be inferred more or less vytas survivor dating from linguistic distribution and usage, be they grammatical or, as in this study, lexical.
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Many linguists and anthropologists today confuse semantics and semantic analysis with culture and cultural analysis, although the latter draws on any and all kinds of evidence-material, behavioral, and introspective as well as verbal. On the other hand, although isomorphism between language and culture is not possible, the semantic subsystem is without doubt significantly connected with the cultural symbolic system; for example, the symbols of a Druidic cult are dynamically reticulated with the connotations of the names for the oak, acorn, and mistletoe.
Rather than construct a semantic account rigidly independent of culture, a principal motivation for working out the semantic subsystem has been to investigate and demonstrate or suggest congruities and covariation between it and the symbolic system of miumeet dating app. A third assumption is that a protolanguage is a realistic analogue to the sort of panther m10 language the prehistoric people might well have spoken.
As such, its semantic system is assumed to fall into types of subsets, of which "level" and "domain" are particularly important. The former term comprises any more or less homogeneous class of process or organization, such as the nominal root system or vytas survivor dating derivational morphology; because my criteria are primarily semantic, I regard as gratuitous any assumptions as to the absolute number or rigid diacreteness of these leveh2 The "domain" is any set of features 2 Bazell has shown that theories of sharply demarcated strata have been based on the implicit priority of phonetic-phonological criteria, whereaa giving vytas survivor dating to semantic criteria leads to a much more finely graded hierarchy.
Methods and Concepts or forms that may be d e h e d by a salient component, such as "denoting some class of tree. But semantic analysis is equally concerned with any and all other meanings of forms and features, because these meanings show how a symbol in a domain is concatenated with other domains; how the oak morpheme, for example, is related to the idiom of morality and the cultural system of religious beliefs.
Within the semantic system, the basic unit is the morpheme.