Păunescu, Paleoliticul şi mezoliticul de pe teritoriul cuprins între Carpaţi şi Dunăre, Bucureşti, Acknowledgements I wish to thank Alexandru Ciornei and Radu Iovita for suggestions and comments on an earlier version of this paper. Fouilles — , MCA 5, , p. Orghidan and Ş. Haesaerts, L. Cârciumaru et alii — M.
The Middle Palaeolithic research in Romania. Despite the abovementioned caveats, by using the available information new syntheses were elaborated, in the attempt to provide different perspectives on the MP. At the same time, excavations at some old sites were resumed, and by employing modern investigation methods new important information was gained on site formation processes, raw material management and associated reduction sequences, palaeoenvironement, etc.
Hominin fossils Direct evidence. In the s, in a Middle Palaeolithic level from Livadița cave southwestern Romania was found a phalange which was assigned to Homo neanderthalensis Terzea mp dating site Currently, this piece cannot be located Păunescu Although lost today, they were briefly described by J. Gall Gallwho assigned them to Homo primigenius Schwalbe.
A third discovery, a dental bud of M1 of La Adam cave Dobrogea coming from a presumably Gravettian level was assigned to a Homo sapiens which also exhibited Neandertal features Necrasov Same as the two previous discoveries, the dental bud is lost Păunescu a. Indirect evidence. Two sites with Pleistocene footprints were reported; they are both unexcavated and with no Palaeolithic tools found on the surface.
Only one print was completely preserved, and the calculations indicated an individual of ca.
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Consequently, the individual who produced the prints must have been a Neandertal Onac et alii In were discovered ca. Recent analysis, carried out for 51 prints, has determined a MNI ~ 7, children and adults, with heights ranging from For their chronological bracket, the terminus post quem was determined by radiocarbon dating of Ursus spelaeus bones right below the prints, which yielded an age of ca.
The terminus ante quem is provided by the trace of a human footstep overprinted by a bear, so it should be before the extinction of cave bears, at ca.
Archaeozoology In the first decades after the Second World War, faunal analysis of the material coming from MP sites was in general limited to the identification of taxa, relative frequency, and brief anatomical descriptions; the species mp dating site used as mere climate indicators Bombiţă ; Terzea Discussion on subsistence and hunting were rather scarce and had a very theoretic character, i.
Her research was mainly focused on Neolithic and later periods, occasionally dealing with Upper Paleolithic Bolomey ; unfortunately, the innovative approaches she advocated for remained largely ignored in the study of MP faunal assemblages.
The status of appendix of archaeozoological analyses can be well illustrated from the situation at Ripiceni — Izvor, as was pointed out by Pop In the monograph on the site Păunescua special chapter features malacofauna analysis carried out by A.
Discussion When discussing the MP research in Romania, mp dating site few issues arise. This is partially confirmed for two cave sites Peștera Muierii and Peștera Curatăbut should not necessarily be extrapolated to the others.
Secondly, the study of lithic industries has been, until recently, focused on thorough description of the lithic material, but with little interpretation in raw material acquisition, subsistence strategies or mobility patterns.
Recent attempts have tried to provide a broader picture on the economy of the MP communities, but these projects are partially hampered by poor information regarding the provenience of the objects, as well as sometimes incomplete assemblages.
Given this situation, the reassessment of old collections is a partial solution, as well as resuming excavations in known sites, but the best solution is, in my view, the discovery of new sites to be investigated with modern methods.
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The MP sites have also yielded fauna and a few hominin remains, mostly in cave sites except for Ripiceni — Izvor. The faunal assemblages are understudied, and were generally presented with very few exceptions at a minimal level. Therefore, information on taphonomy which could be provided by archaeozoological analysis is incomplete. The hominin fossil record for the MP is scarce, as the bone finds reported from cave sites are unfortunately lost; the sites where footprints were discovered and dated were not excavated to the moment, either inside the cave or in the surrounding areas.
The presence of both categories however account for a certain potential for the future research in finding hominin remains from the MP. Conclusion Throughout the 20th century, valuable research on MP has been carried out by numerous Romanian scholars. In the recent decades, through local effort and international collaborations, significant progress was made. Mp dating site now know that the oldest Mp dating site occupations date to Middle Pleistocene, and the dating uniforme site-uri available so far indicates that cave occupations are fairly young.
The least progress was made in the study of old faunal assemblages, but hopefully the collections available will be investigated with modern methods, so as to provide additional data to the picture s outlined through the study on stone tools.
Numerous surface collections that most probably belong to the MP, as well as numerous fossil caves and large loessic areas accounts for the great research potential Romania has for the study of this period. Acknowledgements I wish to thank Alexandru Ciornei and Radu Iovita for suggestions and comments on an earlier version of this paper.
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Past and current issues 13 References Anghelinu — M. Anghelinu, Observaţii asupra musterianului carpatic, CercIst 17, 1,p. Anghelinu — M. Anghelinu, Evoluția gândirii teoretice în arheologia românească, Târgoviște, Balescu — S. Saint Martin ed. Balescu et alii — S. Balescu, M. Lamothe, N. Mercier, S. Huot, D. Balteanu, A. Billard, J. Hus, Luminescence chronology of Pleistocene loess deposits from Romania: testing methods of age correction for anomalous fading in alkali feldspars, Quaternary Science Reviews 22,p.
Lamothe, C. Panaiotu, C. Balescu, A. Tuffreau, R. Bitiri — M. Bitiri, Paleoliticul în Ţara Oaşului. Studiu Arheologic, Bucureşti, Bolomey — A. BacăuCarpica 20,p. Bombiţă — G. Bombiță, Mamiferele din glaciarul peşterilor de la Baia de Fier. Rezultatele paleontologice ale săpăturilor din anulBuletin Ştiinţific, Secţiunea de Ştiinţe Biologice, Agronomice, Geologice şi Geografice 6,p.
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Cârciumaru, Le Paléolithique en Roumanie, Grenoble, Cârciumaru, Peştera Cioarei Mp dating site. Paleomediul, cronologia şi activităţile umane în paleolitic, Târgovişte, Cârciumaru, Anghelinu — M. Cârciumaru, M. Orschiedt, G. Weniger eds. Cârciumaru et alii a — M. Cârciumaru, E. Niţu, J. Bordes, G. Murătoreanu, M. Cosac, R.
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