Some years later he writes the Apology, an account of what Socrates says in his own defence. In the magical consciousness, phenomena were not imagined as in the language, but personalised; therefore substantial, alive and emotionally charged Kowalski This fact is emphasised by the speech of a wedding-host: dear bride and groom: kneel before your father and mother and ask them for forgiveness, because if they do not bless you, Jesus will bar you the way to heaven Lehr The holy books of Judaism are slightly the earlier of the two. More positively it is an offshoot of 17th-century science the discoveries of Galileo and Newton being based on rational assessment of material evidence and philosophy following the example of thinkers such as Descartes. This phrase, which functions in contemporary speech, does not refer to an actual wolf.
Activities of this type were usually called by a general name of casting a spell. This is justified by a dominant type of such rituals, but also suggests uniformity of rituals which were accompanied by such verbalised forms of a word Mauss It is necessary here to emphasise that a magical word appears in various contexts, regarding different manifestations of human life. Therefore, the term casting a spell should be treated as a conventional term, which, however, most precisely describes the sense of its impact on reality.
Faith in the causative power of magical speech is illustrated by the use troy magician speed dating replacement words, i. They were used to avoid the proper name of an object which was talked about without the intention of summoning it.
Therefore, people did not use the names of such animals as the bear or wolf, because they were dangerous to people and damaged livestock.
The bear used to be called by the pronoun he; the wolf was called jakubek, worm or simply animal to let sleeping dogs lie, as the adage says Bystro 1.
Uttering the names of certain amphibians in the presence of children was also avoided for fear of the effect of their causative power, which was the tangible result of the relation between the name and the object. For example, the word frog or even using terms of endearment such as little foggy to a child could have prevented the childs further growth Kolberg a: Similarly, verbalisation of terms describing illnesses was avoided, as in the case of epilepsy St. Valentines disease.
HISTORY OF LITERATURE
Illnesses should not be cursed, as the name of an illness that was uttered was identical to the evoking of such illness d: ; Bystro The use of replacement names is exemplified by the tradition of calling the devil by the pronoun he or using euphemisms, such as dev, consisting in an abbreviation of a tabooed 1 In the Polish language, the phrase is nie wywouj wilka z lasu, which literally means do not call out the wolf from the forest.
This phrase, which functions in contemporary speech, does not refer to an actual wolf. Its semantics are understood as a metaphor with an extended semantic scope encompassing all types of existential problems about which one wishes to forget. Loanwords, such as diachel, diasek, descriptive names proud angel and proper names Rokita, Boruta; Brckner 45; Bystro were also used.
On the other hand, a periphrasis often used for the concept of death was the following phrase: when I disappear, when I am no longer here, especially in reference to oneself and persons with whom the speaker was emotionally involved Bystro Various euphemisms and periphrases referring primarily to dying and death still function in the Polish language.
Their presence testifies to the fear of verbalising the word death and troy magician speed dating an expression of the making of a taboo of attitudes. The moment of death is described as a moment of parting, whereas demise is the end of an earthly journey, giving up ones ghost, ending of ones days or biting the dust Dbrowska It was believed that the mispronunciation of words uttered by godparents in a moment significant for a child such as a childs acceptance to the Christian community had farreaching consequences.
If, during the ceremony of baptism, the godparents answered the priests question: What do you demand from the Holy Church? In a similar manner, a woman who said the prayer Hail Mary intoxicated and mispronounced the first words, would transform into a ghost after death Lehr 16; Bystro Substantive content of magical formulas created a mosaics of various existential problems, from which it was possible to discover the physical problems bothering people illnesses and mental ones indecision, fears, desires.
They were also an indicator of ambivalent relations and human emotions envy, animosities, kindness. Moreover, they reflected in particular the ritual formulasthe relation between man and the Cosmos and mythical beliefs about the mechanism of its functioning.
Special significance of words is manifested in the rituals of the beginning annual and agrarian rites and in the transition periods, initiating the desired re-birth of the world, as well as establishing the status of an individual rites de passage. Analysis of words contained in incantations, ordinary formulas and ritual songs indicates their various causative functions which were determined contextually. Depending on the intended use, their role was: punitive, endowing, protective, healing, initiating and normative.
When used in simple or complex semantic configurations, they could take on the form of a curse, a blessing, a safeguarding phrase, a pleading, a quasi-prayer, a healing incantation, a verbal ritual or a customary formula1. Negative emotive verbalisations, represented by a curse, contained the essence of the evil power of words with the highest degree of harmfulness. A curse, also denoted by the term anathema2, exerted power which did not require any indirect performers gods, ghosts.
By the power of a curse, the cursed person would become a sacrificed victim, subjected to repressions in line with an indication, as in certain Biblical phrases: may the Holy Land not carry you, or in a plea which is to prove the speakers truthfulness: may the earth devour me or may Hell absorb him Od Adama People could be cursed on account of their own sins which led others to misery.
This is exemplified by a curse put on an inn keeper a Jew by a drunkard who blamed him for his addiction and loss of property: may the deuce take him to Hell, because I sold wheat for vodka, I sold rye for vodka, I have spent my last penny on vodka, and now I am a beggar Udziela The presented content division does not aspire to a classification of folkloristic types.
It was adopted for the purpose of grouping the examples of magical formulas referring to various cultural phenomena. It reflected the impossibility of controlling ones own emotional state and human helplessness with respect to facts which are difficult to accept: disobedience of children towards parents, impossibility of enforcing ones point of view. Curse-words, cast intentionally, were supposed to compensate for injustice and humiliation and to punish their perpetrator by causing illness and sometimes even death.
The formulas encountered most frequently contained words denoting an unspecified illness in a general way: may troy magician speed dating illness get you Bystro ; may the bad wind take you away Lebeda Sometimes, the illness was specified by verbalisation of its name, e. Curses also referred to other psychical and mental conditions of people.
These could be ailments related to digestion, e. Most serious curses had the intention of causing a sudden and unexpected death, e.
Primarily, curses referred to a bad death, i. A bad death was troy magician speed dating death without holy sacraments, i. Therefore, curses often contain such words as may you die a miserable death Kolberg Sometimes, these are blunt phrases emphasising elements of death which is unworthy of humans may you die like a dog Kolberg b: The word was also a gift: a positive wishful verbalisation with sacral and magical dimension, as opposed to curses with clearly negative connotations.
Its fullest expression is a blessing, i. Old Germanic tribes understood it as the granting of goods by means of words Leeuw This is the meaning with which blessings occurred in traditional folk culture, and it may be exemplified by a blessing given by a father to a newly-born baby.
Placing the baby on the ground in the vicinity of a stove, the father would say: so that you always know where your home and patrimony are or remember that your place and your home are here Simonides The words emphasised the significance of symbolic, renewed birth humi positio and the idea of substantial identity with the earth, home and family Eliade 44 contained in it.
The words of a prayer, a blessing, endowed on a child by a beggar a mediator in a situation when newly-born babies would die one after another, had a different meaning Kolber However, both these examples testify to the intention of a word blessing, even with different symbolic meanings resulting from the context. In the first case, it was a gift of remembering about ones roots, and in the second, a gift of life.
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The blessing of young people by their parents was an indispensable ritual preceding a wedding. This fact is emphasised by the speech of a wedding-host: dear bride and groom: kneel before your father and mother and ask them for forgiveness, because if they do not bless you, Jesus will bar you the way to heaven Lehr The threat of no parental blessing when trying to marry a partner who was not accepted by the parents used to lead to the couple splitting up.
The blessing of a family by a dying landlord had a similar meaning Kowalska-Lewicka It was believed that opposing the will of parents which resulted in the absence of blessing, as well as a situation when family members were deprived of the gift of words from the head of the family, was equal to the loss of prosperity and happiness in future life.
Such words as God speed you were uttered to the bride and groom returning from the church; they were also used to greet people working in the fields. Words with features of gifts contained in holiday wishes non-canonical carols, predominantly with economic nature contained a created, expected and well-ordered vision of prosperity. It was realised through verbalisation by carol-singing groups visiting houses in a period between the second day of Christmas and the Epiphany.
By oral greeting formulas, they would cast a spell on the coming year and ensure prosperity, good harvest, multiplication of property and health for the owner of a house and his family: God bless this household, first of all, the lady and the landlord, so that they fare well, have a good harvest, and give them all your gifts God Brelewska-Polowa Greetings were also uttered by neighbours troy magician speed dating friends paying visits during the e-werk erlangen speed dating period: happiness and health for Christmas, so that you fare well, have a child in every corner of your house, have as many sheep as there are firs in the forest, as many cows as there are trees in the forest, so that you love each other and never stop, amen Lehr Safeguarding phrases, pleading phrases and quasi-prayers The presented dual troy magician speed dating of the causative power of words in the form of curses and blessings does not exhaust their role in traditional culture.
Words used in a specific context were also a safeguarding predicate, as, for example, in the commonly used phrase without spell or touch wood uttered in place of praises or preceding praising words Chmieliska People believed that the accompaniment of spitting three times across the left shoulder would protect them from the effects of the so-called evil eye.
During his life Socrates is a familiar figure in Athens - sufficiently so to be satirized in BC in a play of AristophanesThe Clouds the modern equivalent would be featuring on television in Spitting Image.
Functioning the magic word is exemplified by a different type of incantations, custom songs connected with the life cycle rituals and ceremonials of the liturgical and agriculture year s calendar. The starting point of my ethnological consideration is introduce to the source of the power word descend from the metaphysical or theological genesis supernatural or divine origin. These kind of roots determinate mystical perception having influence on a phenomena implied adequate psychological attitudes which are manifesting in the performance of the magical activities. Causative propriety attribute to the word depends on phenomenon appearing through the explication of the proper formulas finds their expression in the creation of reality, which is necessary. In the last part the contemporary relation between magic talk and language being the exemplum of using power word was shown.
He is said to be ugly in appearance. He is also eccentric, cussed and tetchy, but with an underlying charm - characteristics shared by many a great teacher. After the defeat of Athens by Sparta in an oligarchic government, brought to power by the Spartans, imposes a brief reign of terror on the city. Democracy is soon restored, but some followers of Socrates have been connected with the repressive oligarchs.
In a charge of impiety is brought against him. The two particular accusations are 'corruption of the young' and 'neglect of the gods whom the city worships'. Plato is in court on the day of the trial. Some years later he writes the Apology, an account of what Socrates says in his own defence.
It is in itself partly a Socratic dialogue; the philosopher leads his accuser into various absurd statements.
Plato's fame today derives from his philosophical works, perhaps more influential than any others over the centuries. In his own time an equally great accomplishment is the school he establishes in about BC in Akademia, a suburb of Athens. From the accident of its location come the words 'academy' and 'academic'. Instruction at the school includes mathematics in the mystical tradition of Pythagorasgeometry, law and the natural sciences - in troy magician speed dating to philosophy.
Plato's academy lasts more than nine centuries, until closed in AD by the Christian emperor Justinian.
It has a good claim to be considered the world's first university. The Symposium, one of the best-known pieces featuring Socrates, is almost an early example of a novella, or short novel. It describes Socrates going as a guest to a dinner held in BC in the house of a playwright, Agathon, who in that year achieves his first theatrical victory in the Lenaea. The victory and the playwright are historical, but not one of his plays has survived.
It is decided that each man shall take it in turns to make a speech in praise of Eros, the god of love. Through the sequence of speeches, and the conversation arising from them, Plato is able to turn the occasion into a dialogue on the nature of love. The idea of a higher Beauty or Good the two are treated as if almost synonymousof which the reality known to us is only a pale reflection, is a central concept in Plato's philosophy.
Known as the theory of Forms, it probably derives from Socrates but is much elaborated by Plato. The Forms are eternal realities, existing in some higher realm, of which our physical senses only perceive a transient and partial version.
There are not only Forms of abstract qualities such as Beauty and Good. There is even, somewhere, the ideal Form of a tree, a chair or a cow.
It is a striking fact that the three greatest philosophers of the ancient world are like three generations of an Athenian family. Socratesin the last ten years of his life, discusses the eternal verities with Platoa young member of his circle. Plato, in the last 20 years of his life, has Aristotle as first a pupil and then a teaching colleague in his famous academy.
The trio, whose ideas in different ways dominate western speculation for the next two millennia, are in a very real sense akin to a grandfather, father and son. But while the first two generations remain closely linked, the third - in the form of Aristotle - takes a radically different approach. Even if some are lost, nearly fifty works attributed to Aristotle have come down to us. They fall into several distinct categories. Of troy magician speed dating various works on logic the Prior Analytics has been the most influential, for it introduces the important device of troy magician speed dating syllogism.
This is a deductive procedure, used in philosophy ever since, which leads from two categorical premises to an implicit conclusion. From the premises 'All men need to eat' and 'All Greeks are men', the conclusion can be drawn that 'All Greeks need to eat'.
The final flowering of Sanskrit literature takes place at the courts of the Gupta dynasty. By this time the spoken languages of India have long been evolving in their own separate directions. Sanskrit has become a literary language, known and used only by a small educated minority - much like Latin in medieval Europe. The poems and plays of the Gupta period are correspondingly artificial in style, but at their best they have considerable charm. Shakuntala, a play of about AD by Kalidasa, has been popular far beyond India's borders ever since its translation into English and German in the 18th century.
The golden age of Latin literature coincides with the peace and prosperity of Italy in the early decades of the empire.
The link is more than coincidence. In the intimate circle of the emperor Augustus is the immensely rich Maecenas, whose name has become synonymous with patronage of the arts; and the writers encouraged by Maecenas share the widespread enthusiasm for the peace brought to Rome by Augustus. So the Augustan Agein literary terms, is a circle of mutual benefit and esteem.
Born in 70 BC in a farming community near Mantua, Rome's greatest poet finds his inspiration in the traditions and history of the Italian countryside. As a young adult Virgil lives under the shadow of the civil wars which convulse Italy during the 40s one of his earliest poems, the first Eclogue, concerns the confiscation of Virgil's family farm to settle veteran soldiers after the battle of Philippi. In his work he celebrates the subsequent peace.
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Virgil's reputation is established with the publication of the ten short Eclogues, written between 42 and 37 BC see Publishing in Rome. Their success brings him to the notice of troy magician speed dating future patron, Maecenas.
Between them, in an ever-shifting balance, the works of Plato and Aristotle remain the dominant influence on western thought for years, until the time of Descartes. In 3rd-century Rome Plotinus merges them in Neo-Platonism. During the dark ages of western Europe their works are preserved and commented on by Greek scholars in Constantinople, by Persians such as Avicenna and by Arabs and Jews in Spain AverröesMaimonides.
Such men hand on the tradition until Aristotle is adopted as the patron saint of scholasticism and Plato, in his turn, of the Renaissance. This is a remarkable result from some sixty years of hard thinking in ancient Athens. Virgil's greatest work, on which he spends the rest of his life, is written when Octavian has been named Augustus Caesar and is in fact though not in theory a Roman emperor. Where the Georgics gently celebrate Italy and its countryside, the Aeneid is an epic in praise of Rome - the power which will liberate the genius of the Italian people.
The reign of Augustus, and the recently achieved Pax Romanais implicit as the natural finale of the story. By a quirk of fate Augustus himself, praised for saving Rome, also saves the poem.
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It is in his interest to do so. Troy magician speed dating Aeneid traces his own descent back to Aeneas himself, the founder of Rome. Horace represents a new idea of the poet, similar to one later developed in another culture - China in the T'ang dynasty. In this tradition the poet is someone distanced from the immediate business of public life, free to concentrate on capturing, in the difficult craft of poetry, more lasting perceptions of the human condition.
The subjects of Horace's short but tightly packed Odes called Carmina or 'songs' in their Latin title are friendship, love, wry amusement at the passing scene - anything which might occur to a man living a quiet country existence but in touch with a wide circle of sophisticated acquaintances.
The setting for this existence is his famous Sabine farm. The fourth great author writing in Latin during the Augustan Age is not so much a celebrant of the emperor's achievements as a victim of his autocracy. Ovid is a generation younger than Virgil, Horace and Livy. By the time he is an adult, from about 23 BC, the civil wars are over; the stability and prosperity of the new Roman empire are established facts. High life, rather than a quiet life, is what appeals to Ovid and his contemporaries.
And his poetic talents are well suited to amuse a society devoted to pleasure. Chinese poetry achieves its golden age during the T'ang dynasty. The ability to turn an elegant verse is so much part of civilized life that almost 50, poems by some poets survive from the period.
Poetry is a social activity. Friends write stanzas for each other to commemorate an occasion, and competitive improvization is a favourite game at a party or on a picnic. Early in the dynasty news of a child prodigy, a girl of seven, reaches the court.
She is brought before the empress and is asked to improvize on the theme of bidding farewell to her brothers. The Resulting poemdelivered in this alarming context, is brilliant - though no doubt polished in the telling.
The three greatest T'ang poets are exact contemporaries in the early 8th century. Troy magician speed dating of them, Wang Wei, begins his career with a brilliant success in the official examinations but he rarely holds the high positions which this would normally imply ssee Chinese examinations.
More important to him is his villa in the mountains south of the capital city, at Wang-ch'uan. The beauty of the landscape inspires Wang Wei both as painter and poet.
None of his paintings survive, but later Chinese landscapes reveal the closely related influence of the countryside in both art forms. A poet of the next dynasty writes of Wang Wei that there are pictures in his poems and poems in his pictures. The first Christian writer since St Paul to reach a wide readership is also the last great figure in the story of Latin literature. Confessions, his account of his early life and conversion to Christianity, is the world's first autobiography, introducing the genre with a masterpiece.
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And the massive City of God is one of the most influential works of Christian philosophy. The author of these very different but seminal works is the bishop of Hippo in north Africa, St Augustine. Augustine's famous Confessions is essentially a spiritual autobiography, written from the viewpoint of a Christian bishop describing how he came to the truth. It provides a rare and fascinating glimpse of the prevailing influences on an intelligent young man in the declining years of the Roman empire and the early centuries of established Christianity.
Augustine's mother, Monica, is a Christian; his father is a pagan; but their main concern is that their brilliant son shall thrive in the world, probably as a civil servant. Instead, as a student at Carthage, he becomes interested in philosophy and launches into a precarious existence as a freelance teacher.
A powerful influence troy magician speed dating Japan from China along with Buddhismthe bureaucracy of Confucianism and even the game of go is Chinese literature and the Chinese script. When the first texts reach Japan, perhaps in the 4th century AD, the Japanese language has not yet been written down.
The first Japanese scribes adapt the Chinese characters to the needs of a very different language, in an unnatural alliance which has remained awkward ever since.
Chromatic Terms in Romanian Onomastics
The earliest surviving works in Japanese date from the flowering of court life at Nara in the 8th century. There are compilations of legend and history, and a magnificent anthology of early Japanese poems. The Heian periodwith the Japanese capital at Kyoto, is distinguished by literature as elegant and subtle as the style of the court itself.
As in China, poetry is here considered an essential element of civilized life. The competitive writing of verses is a social pastime. A good poet can expect preferment at court. Messages from a lover to his mistress are welcome in poetic form, preferably troy magician speed dating to an arrangement of flowers.
In the emperor commissions an anthology of poems, in the tradition of the Manyoshu of earlier times. The new collection, the Kokinshu, consists almost entirely of short tanka. It is more artificial than its predecessor - and more restricting in its subsequent influence. In the heyday of classical Chinese culture, a civilized gentleman - meaning a Confucian official - should be adept in three different artistic fields.
When he settles down before a fresh sheet of paper and dips his brush in the ink ground from a block of pigment by a servantno one can be certain whether he is about to pen an impromptu poem, paint a quick impression of a romantic landscape or fashion some traditional phrase in exquisite Chinese characters. The three skills, all expressed in the beauty of brush strokes, are closely linked. A 'soundless poem' is a conventional Chinese term for a picture.
And a typical poem by conway arding Song master Ou-yang Hsiu Sounds like a painting. The poems of the Arab nomads are invented, embroidered, recited by specialists known as sha'ir meaning approximately 'one who knows', and therefore close to the English word 'seer'. Recorded in anthologies of the 8th century and 9th century, and dating from perhaps two centuries earlier, the surviving examples provide a rare glimpse of poems from a pre-literate era.
They fall into two categories. The earlier tradition consists of short poems of a passionately partisan kind. With few exceptions, the theme is praise of one's own tribe or abuse of the enemy.
Enjoy the Famous Daily Mesopotamia: 3rd millennium BC The earliest uses of writing are strictly practical - lists of commodities, temple accounts, details of a contract. Such documents are short and not too daunting to a Mesopotamian scribe, writing with a reed stylus on a tablet of damp clay. For centuries it seems unthinkable to write down an entire epic poem, familiar to these societies only in the form of recitation. When writing is first developed, an oral poetic tradition is already a feature of civilized life.
The other kind of poem, known as qasidah, is longer up to lines and more elaborate in form. The eastern Mediterranean coast, occupied so rapidly by the Arabs in the 7th century, has been part of the Greek world since the time of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC. Conquest by the Romans does not displace Greek civilization in this region, nor at first do the Arab caliphs. They rule over communities which understand Greek and which possess manuscripts of the classic works of Greek literature.
Many have already been translated in Antioch into Syriac - a local version of Aramaic. Agenţia Naţională pentru Cercetare Ştiinţifică — the National Agency for Scientific Research that was subsequent to a national project competition. Although the initial purpose of the conference was to focus on translation studies exclusively, the organizing committee were open to suggestions and accepted other topics as well.
This allowed troy magician speed dating expand the conference scientific profile creating an opportunity for younger researchers to present, describe, disseminate and, thus, submit the results of their scientific quest or exploration to other more experienced specialists for discussion, suggestions and eventually recommendations for further reading.
The conference proceedings developed in both plenary and concurrent sessions. To observe the financing contract terms, the first plenary session of the conference had as a main goal to offer a description of the research activity performed by the members of the above mentioned research centre.
The presentations referred to the involvement of the Galaţi team in international collaborations that were introduced to the participants in their chronological order. Thus, Professor Floriana Popescu, Ph. D, pointed out several basic elements of the transnational cooperation project, E. The project represented the first international involvement in the creation of a thematic network, it was coordinated by the University of Applied Sciences in Köln, Germany troy magician speed dating.
The research carried out by the members of the Galaţi English Department explored gender studies, on the one hand, and aspects regarding minorities in Romania, in general, and the Roma minority in Romania, in particular, on the other.
The contributions were presented in international conferences which took place in Germany KölnPortugal Coimbra and Sweden Malmo. The project managers are still doing their best to get European financial support to continue expanding the thematic network. The second major project has been developed within the FP6 international cooperation framework and focuses on possibilities of better knowing, understanding and tolerating a wide diversity of subcultural groups.
The task of the Galaţi team has been the exploration of the Romanian hip-hop subculture and of the possible consequences of the phenomenon upon the Romanian society.
Six specific areas make the subject of research within this FP7 project starting from February 1,namely representations of national identity in the media, education, urban social spaces and movements, religion, intercultural violence, and mixed and transnational families. Thus, the Galaţi team could take an active part in favouring significant changes for the better of the mentalities and practices related to women migrants and to their influence on the cultural heritage of Europe in the twenty-first century.
Project site: www. Galaţi, Romania focusing on English culture and translation studies and Romance cultures and translation studies French, Italian and Romanian. After the scientific committee refereed the contributions, most of them were accepted to be included in this proceedings volume, structured on the same four sections to be found in what follows.
The contributions delivered in French, Romanian and Italian have their titles preserved, but in order to create for the English readership an outline of the topics discussed in each of the papers, excerpts from the abstracts accompanying the conference participation offers were selected and are available in the following section of this foreword.
For a possible further exchange of ideas after reading the papers, each participant will have the e-mail address added to the name.
A tiny bio i. Within the English culture and translation studies framework, 26 papers were accepted for publication, and they describe various research interests, spanning mainly fields of translation studies, where translation is to be both literally and figuratively understood, but also topics dealing with English language teaching, problems of interpreting, aspects of contrastive analysis, of intercultural communication and many others.
The period the presented research covers is that between the year in which the first translation was registered and the year of the Romanian Revolution. Particular interest is taken in xfm dating set of data offered by the books the authors could find in libraries, on the one hand, and by the newspapers and the magazines that appeared during that period, on the other.
The analysis of this kind of information, in which bibliographical and critical references belonging to the same period are skillfully exploited, lends increased originality to the paper.
Elena Bonta, Ph. Thus, the reader has to be a connoisseur of the troy magician speed dating postmodernism, hence a speaker of a specific language, i.