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Spray Forming of Aluminum-Alloy Products: Part One Rezumat: Spray forming offers a combination of low-cost manufacturing with enhanced properties and performance.
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As such, it has emerged as a key competitor for existing technologies, such as casting, ingot metallurgy, electrode remelting processes, and powder metallurgy. As well as potential near-net-shape benefits, the primary advantage of the spray forming process is the ability to manufacture alloy compositions that are problematical in conventional processes. Spray forming offers a combination of low-cost manufacturing with enhanced properties and performance.
The spray forming process is an advanced casting process for the manufacture of billet materials and is shown schematically in Figure 1. Figure 1: Schematic of the spray forming process for the manufacture of billets.
As well as potential near-net-shape benefits, the primary advantage of the spray forming process is the ability to manufacture alloy compositions that are problematical in conventional processes such as ingot casting, direct chill casting, and powder metallurgy.
Commercial examples of alloys manufactured by spray forming include AI-Si based alloys for cylinder liners, high speed and speciality steel billets and Si-Al alloys for thermal management applications.
The disadvantages of spray forming include as-sprayed porosity that requires closing by hot isostatic pressing or other downstream processes, and losses because not all droplets created by atomization end up in the spray- formed billet. For example, Figure 2 a shows a 26 kg AI A simple model has been described to relate the distribution of droplet diameters and solid fraction at deposition to the embryonic grain diameter in the billet top surface region.
Calculated embryonic grain diameters of 11 to 58 μm are in good agreement with experimental measurements of final grain diameters in a range of alloys. Model predictions are relatively insensitive to assumed deposition conditions, because the embryonic grain diameter is determined primarily by the large number of fully solid particles always present in the spray.
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Although these particles contribute little in terms of volume to the final billet, they are critical in determining dating site one liners distribution of embryonic grain diameters. The large thermal mass associated with the larger liquid droplets must be sufficient to partially remelt the solid component of the spray on deposition so that the billet top surface is mushy.
The resulting high number of small solid fragments in the mushy billet top surface and dating site one liners corresponding small interdiffusion distances promote rapid thermal and compositional equilibration that helps to reduce microsegregation. In the subsequent relatively slow cooling of the still forming billet, the spheroidized solid coarsens quickly in the early stages due to small interdiffusion distances and highly mobile liquid films between embryonic grains.